Diplomatic relations has been established between the two countries since 1972. Later on, an embassy of the State of Qatar was opened in Madrid in 1981 with the objective of pushing forward the wheel of bilateral relations and introducing Qatar to Spanish businessmen and politicians, largely unknown to them back then. In this context, we should highlight the important role that the ambassador at the time, H.E. Mr. Bader Omar Al Dafa, played in fortifying relations with the different Spanish regions as he made several visits to Galicia, Andalucía among other regions.

The embassy has also organized, since the eighties and nineties, several activities aimed at fortifying bilateral relations between the two countries. For example, it organized several visits by Spanish businessmen and Local political parties' members to Qatar. It also organized visits by Qatari delegations to Spain. Such activities are of big importance at the moment for both countries. International relations have changed a lot, and Qatar now is playing a leading political role in the region. It is supporting the revolutions of the Arab Spring, and the people's will in deciding their fate. It also plays an important economic role, as the Qatari commercial system is characterized by its openness to the world. The country boasts a great verity of energy resources for tempting prices, in addition to the free movement of capital and the big number of projects that offer an opportunity for Spanish companies.

The last period has witnessed many cultural activities, such as exhibitions and musical concerts in the Complutense University in Madrid, in the framework of 4 Qatari cultural weeks in Spain. One of the most important attractions was a big exhibition of Qatari handicrafts.

It is important to mention that the embassy was closed in 1999, and reopened in 2004, one year after the opening of a Spanish embassy in Doha. The role of the two embassies in solidifying the bilateral relations has become of utmost importance. That is reflected in the high profile visits between the two countries, as His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the emir of Qatar back then, visited Spain in September 2004 following a visit by His Majesty the King don Juan Carlos I to Qatar in November 2003. Another visit followed by His Highness in 2006 accompanied by Her Highness Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser who participated in reunions regarding the Alliance of Civilizations initiative. It is important to highlight that HH Sheikha Mozah and the previous Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, are two of the important personalities supporting the Alliance of Civilizations initiative. The last two visits to Spain by HH the previous Emir of Qatar accompanied by his wife HH Sheikha Mozah were for a reunion with the head of the Spanish government, Zapatero,  in 2010 and 2011.

Apart from this, there were many important visits. From the Spanish side, The Spanish Secretary of State for Defense visited Qatar, and the Spanish Minister of Foreign affairs and Cooperation assisted to a round table to discuss the cartoon depictions of Prophet Mohammad.  Deputy Prime Minister of Spain, Manuel Chaves also participated in the 10th Doha Forum in May 2010 and the President of the Basque Government, Patxi Lopez paid a visit to Qatar as well. 

There were several high profile visits from the Qatari side too. Such as the previous Minister of Economy and Commerce, His Excellency Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Jassim Al Thani's visit to Spain in march 2005, and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, His Excellency Ahmad bin Abdullah Al Mahmoud visit for the inauguration of Casa Árabe in Madrid in 2007, and Deputy Prime Minister, His Excellency Hamad bin Jassem bin Jaber Al Thani visit to Spain in 2006 acting as Foreign Minister back then. A high profile delegation from the Ministry of Interior also visited Spain in 2006.